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[ «МЕДИЦИНА» № 3, 2018 ]

Эволюция методов оценки диска зрительного нерва с анализом достоинств и недостатков метода гейдельбергской ретинотомографии (HRT 3)


Мачехин В. А.
д.м.н., главный научный консультант1; профессор, кафедра офтальмологии2
Фабрикантов О. Л.
д.м.н., директор1; заведующий, кафедра офтальмологии2
Львов В. А.
врач-офтальмолог1



1Тамбовский филиал ФГАУ «НМИЦ «МНТК «Микрохирургия глаза» им. акад. С. Н. Федорова» Минздрава России
2Медицинский институт Тамбовского государственного университета им. Г.Р. Державина Минздрава России

Автор для корреспонденции: Мачехин Владимир Александрович; e-mail: naukatmb@mail.ru Финансирование. Исследование не имело спонсорской поддержки. Конфликт интересов. Авторы заявляют об отсутствии конфликта интересов.

Аннотация

Появление в середине 90-х годов ХХ века лазерного сканирующего ретинотомографа (HRT), при разработке технологии которого были использованы лучшие достижения предыдущих десятилетий, позволило офтальмологам на микронном уровне исследовать диск зрительного нерва. Установлено, что изменения в диске и перипапиллярной сетчатке могут наблюдаться задолго до выявления патологических изменений в центральном поле зрения. И хотя оптическая когерентная томография значительно вырвалась вперед в плане исследования сетчатки, превосходство ее в отношении анализа параметров ДЗН остается сомнительным. Этому вопросу будет посвящена наша следующая статья.

Ключевые слова

офтальмология, глаукома, диск зрительного нерва, параметры диска, HRT, методы исследования диска зрительного нерва

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Список литературы

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8. Acar Y., Orhan M., Irkec M., Karaagaouglu E. Major determinants of optic nerve head topographic in a normal Turkish population. Clinical & Experimental Opthalmology 2004; 32 (1): 9-13.

9. Armaly M.F. Genetic determination of cup/disc ratio of the optic nerve. Arch Ophthalmol. 1967; 78: 35-43.

10. Bengtsson B. The Inheritance and Development of Cup and Disc Diameter. Acta ophthalmol. 1980; 68(5): 733-739.

11. Brigatti L., Caprioli J. Correlation of visual field with scanning confocal laser optic disc measurements in glaucoma. Arch. Ophthalmol. 1995; 113: 1191-1194.

12. Caprioli J., Miller J., Sears M. Quantitative Evaluation of the Optic Nerve Head in Patients with Unilateral Visual Field Loss from Primary Open-angle Glaucoma. Ophthalmology 1987; 94 (11): 1484-87.

13. Dascalu A.M., Cherecheanu A.P., Stana D. et al. Stereometric parameters change vs. Topographic Change Analysis (TCA) agreement in Heidelberg Retina Tomography III (HRT-3) early detection of clinical significant glaucoma progression. Journal of Medicine and Life 2014; 7 (4): 555-557.

14. DeLeon-Ortega J.E., Lisandro M., Sakata L.M., Monheit B.E. Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of HRT-II and HRT-3 to discriminate glaucomatous and non-glaucomatous eyes. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 2007; 144 (4): 525-532.

15. Dreher A.W, Tso P.C., Weinreb R.N. Reproducibility of topographic measurements of the normal and glaucomatous optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991; 111 (2): 221-229.

16. Durukan A.H., Yucel I., Acar Y.Z. et al. Assessment of optic nerve head topographic parameters with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Clinical & Experimental Opthalmology 2004; 32 (3): 259-264.

17. Ferreras A., Pajarin A.B., Pinilla I. et al. Diagnostic ability of glaucoma probability score to discriminate between healthy individuals and glaucoma suspects. Acta Ophthalmologica 2008; 86 (9): 243.

18. Garway-Heath D.F., Hitchings R.A. Quantitative Evaluation of Optic Nerve Head in Early Glaucoma. Br. J. Ophthalmol.1998; 82: 352-361.

19. Garway-Heath D.F., Ruben S.T. Viswanathan A. et al. Vertical cup/disc ratio in relation to optic disc size: its value in the assessment of the glaucoma suspect. Br J Ophthalmol. 1998; 82: 1118-1124.

20. Garway-Heath D.F., Wollstein G., Hitchings R.A. Aging Changes of the Optic Nerve Head in Relation to Open Angle Glaucoma. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 1997; 81(10): 840-845.

21. Gloster J., Parry D.G. Use of photographs for measuring cupping of the optic disc. Br J Ophthalmol. 1974; 58: 850-862.

22. Hatch W.V., Flanagan J.G., Etchells E.E. et al. Laser scanning tomography of the optic nerve head in ocular hypertension and glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 1997; 81: 871-876.

23. Heijl A., Buchholz P., Norrgren G., et al. Rates of visual field progression in clinical glaucoma care. Acta Ophthalmol. 2013; 91: 406-412.

24. Hermann M.M., Theofylaktopoulos I., Bangard N., et al. Optic nerve head morphometry in healthy adults using сonfocal laser scanning tomography. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004; 88: 761–765.

25. Hitchings R.A., Genio C., Anderton S., Clark P. An optic disc grid: Its evaluation in reproducibility studies on the cup/disc ratio. Br J Ophthalnol. 1983; 67: 356-61.

26. Hitchings R.A., Spaeth G.L. The optic disc in glaucoma II. Correlation of the appearance of the optic disc with the visual field. Br J Ophthalmol. 1977; 61: 107-113.

27. Hoesl L.M., Mardin C.Y., Horn F.K. et al. Influence of glaucomatous damage and optic disc size on glaucoma detection by scanning laser tomography. J. Glaucoma 2009; 18(5): 385-389.

28. Hoffmann E.M., Zangwill L.M., Crowston J.G. et al. Optic disc size and glaucoma. Survey of Ophthalmology 2007; 52(1): 32-49.

29. Hollows F.C., Graham P.A. Intra-ocular pressure, glaucoma, and glaucoma suspect in a defined population. Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 1966; 50: 570-578.

30. Iester M., Mikelberg F.S., Drance S.M. et al. The effect of optic disc size on diagnostic precision with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph. Ophthalmology 1997; 104 (3): 545-548.

31. Janknecht P., Funk J. Optic nerve head analyser and Heidelberg Retina Tomograph: accuracy and reproducibility of topographic measurements in a model eye and in volunteers. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 1994; 8: 760-768.

32. Jonas J.B., Schmidt A.M., Muller-Bergh J.A. et al. Human Optic Nerve Fiber Count and Optic Disc Size. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1992; 33 (6): 2012-2018.

33. Kamal D.S., Viswanathan,A.C., Garway-Heath D.F. et al. Detection of optic disc change with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph before confirmed visual field change in ocular hypertensives converting to early glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999; 83: 290-294.

34. Kesen M.R., Spaeth G.L., Henderer J.D. et al. The Heidelberg Retina Tomograph vs Clinical Impression in the Diagnosis of Glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002; 133(5): 613-616.

35. Leung C.K., Cheng A.C., Chong K.K. et al. Optic disc measurements in myopia with optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007; 48: 3178-3183.

36. Mardin C.Y., Horn F.K. Influence of optic disc on the sensitivity of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph. Grafes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1998; 236(9): 641-645.

37. Martin L.M., Lindblom B., Gedda U.K. Concordance between results of optic disc tomography and high-pass resolution perimetry in glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2000; 9 (1): 28-33.

38. Mikelberq F.S., Douglas G.R., Schulzer. M. et al. Reliability of Optic Disk Topographic Measurements Recorded with a Video-Ophthalmograph. Am J Ophthalmol. 1984; 98(1): 98-102.

39. Mikelberg F.S., Parfitt C.M., Swindale N.V. Ability of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph to detect early glaucomatous visual field loss. J Glaucoma 1995; 4: 242-247.

40. Nakamura H., Maeda T., Suzuki Y., Inoue Y. Scanning laser tomography to evaluate optic discs of normal eyes. Jpn. J Ophthalmol. 1999; 43 (5): 410-414.

41. Oliveira C., Harizman N., Girkin C.A. et al. Axial length and optic disc size in normal eyes. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007; 91: 37-39.

42. Portney G.L. Photogrammetric analyses of the three-dimensional geometry of normal and glaucomatous optic cups. Trans. Am Acad Ophthalmol. Otolaryngol.1976; 81: 239-246.

43. Quigley H.A. Quantitative studies of retinal nerve fiber layer loss in monkey and human glaucoma. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1986; 84: 920-966.

44. Quigley H.A., Addicks K., M. Quantitative Studies of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects. Arch Ophthalmol. 1982; 100: 807-814.

45. Quigley H.A., Addicks E.M., Green W.R. Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma: III. Quantitive correlation of nerve fiber loss and visual field defect in glaucoma, ischemic neuropathy, papilledema, and toxic neuropathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1982; 100: 135-146.

46. Quigley H.A., Anderson D.R. The histologic bases of optic disc pallor in experimental optic atrophy. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 1977; 83: 709-717.

47. Quigley H.A., Dunkelberger G.R., Green W.R. Retinal ganglion cell atrophy correlated with automated perimetry in human eyes with glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1989; 107: 453-464.

48. Quigley H.A., Davis E.B., Anderson E.R. Descending optic nerve degeneration in primates. Invest. Ophthalmology Vis Sci. 1977; 16: 841-849.

49. Quigley H.A., Katz J., Derick R.J. et al. An evaluation of optic disc and nerve fiber layer examinations in monitoring progression of early glaucoma damage. Ophthalmology. 1992; 99: 19-28.

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51. Rohrschneider K., Burk R.O., Kruse F.E., Volcker H.E. Reproducibility of the optic nerve head topography with a new laser tomographic scanning device. Ophthalmology. 1994; 101: 1044-1049.

52. Rohrschneider K, Burk R., Volcker H.E. Reproducibility of topometric data acquisition in normal and glaucomatous optic nerve heads with the laser tomographic scanner. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1993; 231: 457-464.

53. Michael I Seider M.I., Roland Y Lee R.Y., Dandan Wana D. et al. Optic disk Size Variability Between African, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and Filipino Americans Using Heidelberg Retinal Tomography. J Glaucoma. 2009; 18(8): 595-600.

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60. Wollstein G., Garway-Heath D.F., Fontana L., Hitchings R.A. Identifying early glaucomatous changes. Ophthalmology 2000; 107: 2272-2277.

61. Wollstein G., Garway-Heath D.F., Hitchings R.A. Identification of early glaucoma cases with the scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Ophthalmology. 1998; 105 (8): 1557-1563.

62. Zangwill L.M., Jain S., Racette L. et al. The effect of disc size and severity of disease on the diagnostic accuracy of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph Glaucoma Probability Score. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007; 48 (6): 2653-2660.

63. Zangwill L., Shakiba S., Caprioli J. et al. Agreement between clinicians and a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope in estimating cup/disc ratios. Am. J. of Ophthalmol. 1995; 119 (4): 415-421.

64. Zangwill L.M., van Horn S, de Souza L. et al. Optic nerve head topography in ocular hypertensive eyes using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Am J Ophthalmol. 1996; 122(4): 520-525.



The Evolution of Methods for the Evaluation of the Optic Nerve Head and Analysis of the Advantages and Disadvantages of the Method of the Heidelberg Retinography (HRT 3)


Machekhin V. A.
Doctor of Medicine, Chief Scientific Consultant1; Professor, Chair for Ophtalmology2
Fabrikantov O. L.
Doctor of Medicine, Director1; Head, Chair for Ophtalmology2
L'vov V. A.
Ophtalmologist


1Federal State Autonomous Institution "S.N.Fedorov National Medical Research Center "MNTK "Eye Microsurgery" of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation 2Derzhavin Tambov State University, Medical Institute, Tambov, Russia

Corresponding author: Machekhin Vladimir; e-mail: naukatmb@mail.ru Conflict of interest. None declared. Funding. The study had no sponsorship.

Abstract

The emergence of laser scanning retina tomograph (HRT) in the mid-90th of XX century, using in the technological development the best achievements of the previous decades, enabled the ophthalmologists to examine the optic disc at the micron level. It was established that changes in the disc and peripapillary retina might occur long before the detection of pathological alterations in the central visual field. Although optical coherence tomography has made significant progress in terms of retinal study, its superiority in respect of analyzing the disc parameters remains uncertain. This issue will be the subject of our next article.

Key words

ophthalmology, glaucoma, optic disc, disc parameters, HRT, methods of optic disc examination

References

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11. Brigatti L., Caprioli J. Correlation of visual field with scanning confocal laser optic disc measurements in glaucoma. Arch. Ophthalmol. 1995; 113: 1191-1194.

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13. Dascalu A.M., Cherecheanu A.P., Stana D. et al. Stereometric parameters change vs. Topographic Change Analysis (TCA) agreement in Heidelberg Retina Tomography III (HRT-3) early detection of clinical significant glaucoma progression. Journal of Medicine and Life 2014; 7 (4): 555-557.

14. DeLeon-Ortega J.E., Lisandro M., Sakata L.M., Monheit B.E. Comparison of diagnostic accuracy of HRT-II and HRT-3 to discriminate glaucomatous and non-glaucomatous eyes. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 2007; 144 (4): 525-532.

15. Dreher A.W, Tso P.C., Weinreb R.N. Reproducibility of topographic measurements of the normal and glaucomatous optic nerve head with the laser tomographic scanner. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991; 111 (2): 221-229.

16. Durukan A.H., Yucel I., Acar Y.Z. Assessment of optic nerve head topographic parameters with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Clinical & Experivental Opthalmology 2004; 32 (3): 259-264.

17. Ferreras A., Pajarin A.B., Pinilla I. et al. Diagnostic ability of glaucoma probability score to discriminate between healthy individuals and glaucoma suspects. Acta Ophthalmologica 2008; 86 (9): 243.

18. Garway-Heath D.F., Hitchings R.A. Quantitative Evaluation of Optic Nerve Head in Early Glaucoma. Br. J. Ophthalmol.1998; 82: 352-361.

19. Garway-Heath D.F., Ruben S.T. Viswanathan A. et al. Vertical cup/disc ratio in relation to optic disc size: its value in the assessment of the glaucoma suspect. Br J Ophthalmol. 1998; 82: 1118-1124.

20. Garway-Heath D.F., Wollstein G., Hitchings R.A. Aging Changes of the Optic Nerve Head in Relation to Open Angle Glaucoma. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 1997; 81(10): 840-845.

21. Gloster J., Parry D.G. Use of photographs for measuring cupping of the optic disc. Br J Ophthalmol. 1974; 58: 850-862.

22. Hatch W.V., Flanagan J.G., Etchells E.E. et al. Laser scanning tomography of the optic nerve head in ocular hypertension and glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 1997; 81: 871-876.

23. Heijl A., Buchholz P., Norrgren G., et al. Rates of visual field progression in clinical glaucoma care. Acta Ophthalmol. 2013; 91: 406-412.

24. Hermann M.M., Theofylaktopoulos I., Bangard N., et al. Optic nerve head morphometry in healthy adults using сonfocal laser scanning tomography. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004; 88: 761–765.

25. Hitchings R.A., Genio C., Anderton S., Clark P. An optic disc grid. Its evaluation in reproducibility studies on the cup/disc ratio. Br J Ophthalnol. 1983; 67: 356-61.

26. Hitchings R.A., Spaeth G.L. The optic disc in glaucoma. Correlation of the appearance of the optic disc with the visual field. Br J Ophthalmol. 1977; 61: 107-113.

27. Hoesl L.M., Mardin C.Y., Horn F.K. et al. Influence of glaucomatous damage and optic disc size on glaucoma detection by scanning laser tomography. J. Glaucoma 2009; 18(5): 385-389.

28. Hoffmann E.M., Zangwill L.M., Crowston J.G. et al. Optic disc size and glaucoma. Survey of Ophthalmology 2007; 52(1): 32-49.

29. Hollowst F.C., Graham P.A. Intra-ocular pressure, glaucoma, and glaucoma suspect in a defined population. Brit. J. Ophthalmol. 1966; 50: 570-578.

30. Iester M., Mikelberg F.S., Drance C.M. et al. The effect of optic disc size on diagnostic precision with the Heidelberg retina tomograph. Ophthalmology 1997; 104 (3): 545-548.

31. Janknecht P., Funk J. Optic nerve head analyser and Heidelberg retina tomograph: accuracy and reproducibility of topographic measurements in a model eye and in volunteers. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 1994; 8: 760-768.

32. Jonas J.B., Schmidt A.M., Muller Bergh J.A. et al. Human Optic Nerve Fiber Count and Optic Disc Size. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 1992; 33 (6): 2012-2018.

33. Kamal D.S., Viswanathan,A.C., Garway-Heath D.F. et al. Detection of optic disc change with the Heidelberg retina tomograph before confirmed visual field change in ocular hypertensives converting to early glaucoma. Br J Ophthalmol. 1999; 83: 290-294.

34. Kesen M.R., Spaeth G.L., Henderer J.D. et al. The Heidelberg Retina Tomograph Vs Clinical Impression in the Diagnosis of Glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002; 133(5): 613-616.

35. Leung C.K., Cheng A.C., Chong K.K. et al. Optic disc measurements in myopia with optical coherence tomography and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007; 48: 3178-3183.

36. Mardin C.Y., Horn F.K. Influence of optic disc on the sensitivity of the Heidelberg retina tomograph. Grafes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1998; 236(9): 641-645.

37. Martin L.M., Lindblom B., Gedda U.K. Concordance between results of optic disc tomography and high-pass resolution perimetry in glaucoma. J Glaucoma. 2000; 9 (1): 28-33.

38. Mikelberq S., Douglas., Schulzer. M. et al. Reliability of Optic Disk Topographic Measurements Recorded with a Video-Ophthalmograph. Am J Ophthalmol. 1984; 98(1): 98-102.

39. Mikelberg F.S., Parfitt C.M., Swindale N.V. Ability of the Heidelberg retina tomograph to detect early glaucomatous visual field loss. J Glaucoma 1995; 4: 242-247.

40. Nakamura H., Maeda T., Suzuki Y., Inoue Y. Scanning laser tomography to evaluate optic discs of normal eyes. Jpn. J Ophthalmol. 1999; 43 (5): 410-414.

41. Oliveira C., Harizman N., Girkin C.A. et al. Axial length and optic disc size in normal eyes. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007; 91: 37-39.

42. Portney G.L. Photogrammetric analyses of the three-dimensional geometry of normal and glaucomatous optic cups. Trans. Am Acad Ophthalmol. Otolaryngol.1976; 81: 239-246.

43. Quigley H.A. Quantitative studies of retinal nerve fiber layer loss in monkey and human glaucoma. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1986; 84: 920-966.

44. Quigley H.A., Addicks K., M. Quantitative Studies of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defects. Arch Ophthalmol. 1982; 100: 807-814.

45. Quigley H.A., Addicks E.M., Green W.R. Optic nerve damage in human glaucoma: III. Quantitive correlation of nerve fiber loss and visual field defect in glaucoma, ischemic neuropathy, papilledema, and toxic neuropathy. Arch Ophthalmol. 1982; 100: 135-146.

46. Quigley H.A., Anderson D.R. The histologic bases of optic disc pallor in experimental optic atrophy. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 1977; 83: 709-717.

47. Quigley H.A., Dunkelberger G.R., Green W.R. Retinal ganglion cell atrophy correlated with automated perimetry in human eyes with glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol. 1989; 107: 453-464.

48. Quigley H.A., Davis E.B., Anderson E.R. Descending optic nerve degeneration in primates. Invest. Ophthalmology Vis Sci. 1977; 16: 841-849.

49. Quigley H.A., Katz J., Derick R.J. et al. An evaluation of optic disc and nerve fiber layer examinations in monitoring progression of early glaucoma damage. Ophthalmology. 1992; 99: 19-28.

50. Quigley H.A., Sommer A. How to use nerve fiber layer examination in the management of glaucoma. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1987; 85: 254-272.

51. Rohrschneider K., Burk R.O., Kruse F.E., Volcker H.E. Reproducibility of the optic nerve head topography with a new laser tomographic scanning device. Ophthalmology. 1994; 101: 1044-1049.

52. Rohrschneider K, Burk R., Volcker H.E. Reproducibility of topometric data acquisition in normal and glaucomatous optic nerve heads with the laser tomographic scanner. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1993; 231: 457-464.

53. Michael I Seider M.I., Roland Y Lee R.Y., Dandan Wana D. et al. Optic disk Size Variability Between African, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic and Filipino Americans Using Heidelberg Retinal Tomography. J Glaucoma. 2009; 18(8): 595-600.

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